Eldest son preference is main cause of Child Stunting in India

Urooj Tarar 01:42 PM | 6 Nov, 2017
Eldest son preference is main cause of Child Stunting in India
Child stunting in India - where over 30 percent of worlds stunted children live -  exceeds that in poorer regions like Sub-Saharan Africa, according to a report published by American Economic Association. The disturbing findings of the report suggest that the reason behind child stunting in Indian isn't due to malnutrition but favoritism.

Stunting is the weekend growth and development that children experience from poor nutrition, repeated infection, and insufficient psychosocial stimulation. Children are defined as stunted if their height, given their age, is at least two standard deviations below the WHO Child Growth Standards median.

According to the study conducted by Seema Jayachandran and Rohini Pande, a preference for the oldest son — who is expected to take care of aging parents, inherit the property, and perform post-death rituals for parents — might be the reason behind increased child stunting in India. As much as 48% children under age five are stunted in India.

Photo Credits: Indpaedia

Starting with pre-birth care and extending to early childhood tetanus shots and iron supplements, families - particularly in India - tend to invest more in their oldest sons. The favouritism leads other siblings, particularly girls, to end up without sources, proper care or nourishment they need to reach a healthy height.

The authors gathered data from  168,000 children from India and 25 African countries. According to the findings, the height-for-age for Indian children is lower than that of African children by 0.3 standard deviations of the worldwide distribution.

According to the key findings:

  • India's relative height disadvantage happens for second-born and ascends for third and higher order birth i.e. in an Indian family, the eldest son might be tall and others are stunted.
  • Within India, the birth order gradient is shallower among children living in Indian states that practice matrilineality (A society which practices tracing descent through maternal line).
  •  Since Islam put less emphasis on having son, the birth order gradient within Indian-Muslim is less
  • Families with a preference for oldest son might have one taller boy and multiple stunted children, thus a much lower average height. This explains why India exceeds poorer regions in child stunting while doing better on other health and nutrition indicators.

Child stunting is a serious issue, stunted children have often irreversible development problems, they do less well in school, get fewer professional opportunities, earn less and it [effects of stunting] continue to effect their children.

Photo Credits: UNICEF


Urooj Tarar
Urooj Tarar

Editor - Daily Pakistan Lifestyle.


USD to PKR: Pakistani rupee remains stable against dollar as IMF talks underway

ISLAMABAD – Pakistani rupee remained stable against the US dollar as the market is looking for direction amid Pakistan’s ongoing negotiations with the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

Amid the economic uncertainty, the local currency remained unchanged against the greenback, moving up 0.01 percent during the opening hours of trading. Before noon, PKR was hovering at 285.40 in the interbank.

In contrast to the inter-bank, the dollar continued its upward trajectory in the open market and is reportedly available at Rs315, as the gap between the official rate and open market rate is Rs30 per dollar.

As the money market is waiting for a positive development from the economic front, International Monetary Fund (IMF) Mission Chief to Pakistan said they continued engagement with Islamabad focusing on the restoration of foreign exchange proper market functioning, with special on the upcoming budget.

Today's gold rates in Pakistan – May 30 2023

KARACHI - The price of a single tola of 24-karat gold in Pakistan is Rs 232,700 on Tuesday.The price of 10 grams of 24k gold was recorded at Rs199,510.   

Likewise, 10 grams of 22k gold were being traded for Rs163,624 while a single tola of 22-karat gold was being sold at Rs 190,880.

Note: The gold rate in Pakistan is fluctuating according to the international market so the price is never been fixed. The below rates are provided by local gold markets and Sarafa Markets of different cities.

City Gold Silver
Lahore PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Karachi PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Islamabad PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Peshawar PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Quetta PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Sialkot PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Attock PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Gujranwala PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Jehlum PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Multan PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Bahawalpur PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Gujrat PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Nawabshah PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Chakwal PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Hyderabad PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Nowshehra PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Sargodha PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Faisalabad PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500
Mirpur PKR 232,700 PKR 2,500


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