Eldest son preference is main cause of Child Stunting in India

01:42 PM | 6 Nov, 2017
Eldest son preference is main cause of Child Stunting in India
Child stunting in India - where over 30 percent of worlds stunted children live -  exceeds that in poorer regions like Sub-Saharan Africa, according to a report published by American Economic Association. The disturbing findings of the report suggest that the reason behind child stunting in Indian isn't due to malnutrition but favoritism.

Stunting is the weekend growth and development that children experience from poor nutrition, repeated infection, and insufficient psychosocial stimulation. Children are defined as stunted if their height, given their age, is at least two standard deviations below the WHO Child Growth Standards median.

According to the study conducted by Seema Jayachandran and Rohini Pande, a preference for the oldest son — who is expected to take care of aging parents, inherit the property, and perform post-death rituals for parents — might be the reason behind increased child stunting in India. As much as 48% children under age five are stunted in India.

Photo Credits: Indpaedia

Starting with pre-birth care and extending to early childhood tetanus shots and iron supplements, families - particularly in India - tend to invest more in their oldest sons. The favouritism leads other siblings, particularly girls, to end up without sources, proper care or nourishment they need to reach a healthy height.

The authors gathered data from  168,000 children from India and 25 African countries. According to the findings, the height-for-age for Indian children is lower than that of African children by 0.3 standard deviations of the worldwide distribution.

According to the key findings:

  • India's relative height disadvantage happens for second-born and ascends for third and higher order birth i.e. in an Indian family, the eldest son might be tall and others are stunted.

  • Within India, the birth order gradient is shallower among children living in Indian states that practice matrilineality (A society which practices tracing descent through maternal line).

  •  Since Islam put less emphasis on having son, the birth order gradient within Indian-Muslim is less

  • Families with a preference for oldest son might have one taller boy and multiple stunted children, thus a much lower average height. This explains why India exceeds poorer regions in child stunting while doing better on other health and nutrition indicators.

Child stunting is a serious issue, stunted children have often irreversible development problems, they do less well in school, get fewer professional opportunities, earn less and it [effects of stunting] continue to effect their children.

Photo Credits: UNICEF



Pakistani rupee remains stable against US Dollar, Euro, Pound, Riyal and Dirham; Check forex rates

Pakistani rupee remained stable against the US dollar, and other currencies in the open market on Friday.

Dollar Rate in Pakistan Today

On Friday, the US dollar remained stable and was being quoted at 283.2 for buying and 286.15 for selling.

Euro comes down to 308 for buying and 311 for selling. British Pound rate dropped to 358.5 for buying, and 362 for selling.

UAE Dirham AED witnessed slight drop and new rate stands at 77.4 whereas the Saudi Riyal remained stable at 76.

Today's currency exchange rates in Pakistan - 8 December 2023

Source: Forex Association of Pakistan. (last update 09:00 AM)

Currency Symbol Buying Selling
US Dollar ‎USD 283.2 286.15
Euro EUR 308 311
UK Pound Sterling GBP 358.5 362
U.A.E Dirham AED 77.4 78.1
Saudi Riyal SAR 76 76.8
Australian Dollar AUD 187.2 189
Bahrain Dinar BHD 757.23 765.23
Canadian Dollar CAD 209 211
China Yuan CNY 39.89 40.29
Danish Krone DKK 41.19 41.59
Hong Kong Dollar HKD 36.41 36.71
Indian Rupee INR 3.42 3.53
Japanese Yen JPY 1.39 1.45
Kuwaiti Dinar KWD 921.71 930.71
Malaysian Ringgit MYR 61.02 61.62
New Zealand Dollar NZD 174.54 176.54
Norwegians Krone NOK 26.05 26.35
Omani Riyal OMR 739.62 747.62
Qatari Riyal ‎QAR 78.22 78.92
Singapore Dollar SGD 211 213
Swedish Korona SEK 27.12 27.42
Swiss Franc CHF 324.94 327.44
Thai Bhat THB 8.06 8.21

Gold prices in Pakistan increase; Check out latest rates here

Gold price in Pakistan increased as the yellow metal witnessed an upward trend in the international market.

Gold Rates in Pakistan Today - 8 December 2023

On Friday, the price of a single tola of 24-karat gold stands at Rs217,400 and 10 grams of 24k gold costs Rs186,390.

Single tola of 22 Karat Gold costs Rs199,282, 21 karat rate for per tola is Rs190,225 and 18k gold rate is Rs163,050 each tola.

In the global market, gold prices hover at around $2026, gaining $8.30 on Friday.

Today Gold Rate in Pakistan

Today Gold Price in Pakistan (8 December 2023)

City Gold Silver
Lahore PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Karachi PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Islamabad PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Peshawar PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Quetta PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Sialkot PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Attock PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Gujranwala PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Jehlum PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Multan PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Bahawalpur PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Gujrat PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Nawabshah PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Chakwal PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Hyderabad PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Nowshehra PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Sargodha PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Faisalabad PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583
Mirpur PKR 217,400 PKR 2,583


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