OSLO – The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2023 to Claudia Goldin “for having advanced our understanding of women’s labour market outcomes”.
This year’s Laureate in the Economic Sciences, Claudia Goldin, provided the first comprehensive account of women’s earnings and labour market participation through the centuries. Her research reveals the causes of change, as well as the main sources of the remaining gender gap.
Women are vastly underrepresented in the global labour market and, when they work, they earn less than men. Claudia Goldin has trawled the archives and collected over 200 years of data from the US, allowing her to demonstrate how and why gender differences in earnings and employment rates have changed over time.
Goldin showed that female participation in the labour market did not have an upward trend over this entire period, but instead forms a U-shaped curve. The participation of married women decreased with the transition from an agrarian to an industrial society in the early nineteenth century, but then started to increase with the growth of the service sector in the early twentieth century. Goldin explained this pattern as the result of structural change and evolving social norms regarding women’s responsibilities for home and family.
During the twentieth century, women’s education levels continuously increased, and in most high-income countries they are now substantially higher than for men. Goldin demonstrated that access to the contraceptive pill played an important role in accelerating this revolutionary change by offering new opportunities for career planning.
Despite modernisation, economic growth and rising proportions of employed women in the twentieth century, for a long period of time the earnings gap between women and men hardly closed. According to Goldin, part of the explanation is that educational decisions, which impact a lifetime of career opportunities, are made at a relatively young age. If the expectations of young women are formed by the experiences of previous generations – for instance, their mothers, who did not go back to work until the children had grown up – then development will be slow.
Historically, much of the gender gap in earnings could be explained by differences in education and occupational choices. However, Goldin has shown that the bulk of this earnings difference is now between and women in the same occupation, and that it largely arises with the birth of the first child.
The prize amount is 11 million Swedish kronor.
Pakistani rupee remains largely stable against the US dollar, and other currencies in the open market on Saturday.
On Saturday, the US dollar was being quoted at 283.4 for buying and 285.95 for selling.
Euro comes down to 307 for buying and 310 for selling. British Pound rate remains unchanged at 358.5 for buying, and 362 for selling.
UAE Dirham AED witnessed slight drop and new rate stands at 77.2 whereas the Saudi Riyal remained stable at 76.
Source: Forex Association of Pakistan. (last update 09:00 AM)
|UK Pound Sterling||GBP||358.5||362|
|Hong Kong Dollar||HKD||36.37||36.72|
|New Zealand Dollar||NZD||175.33||177.33|
Gold prices witnessed negative trend in local markets in line with the trend in the international market.
On Saturday, the price of a single tola of 24-karat gold stands at Rs217,600, and 10 grams of 24k gold costs Rs186,560.
Single tola of 22 Karat Gold price costs Rs199,465, 21 karat rate per tola costs Rs190, 400 and 18k gold rate is Rs163,200.00 for each tola.
In the global market, gold prices hovers around $2,004 per ounce, after drop of $23.35 on Saturday.
|Lahore||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Karachi||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Islamabad||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Peshawar||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Quetta||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Sialkot||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Attock||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Gujranwala||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Jehlum||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Multan||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Bahawalpur||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Gujrat||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Nawabshah||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Chakwal||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Hyderabad||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Nowshehra||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Sargodha||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Faisalabad||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|
|Mirpur||PKR 217,600||PKR 2,530|