The Order of Skull and Bones and US Society

11:43 AM | 22 Jan, 2024
The Order of Skull and Bones and US Society

“The Order has so wrecked education that reading comprehension is difficult for many – that’s part of the brainwashing program.” –Antony C. Sutton

The Order of Skull and Bones is a highly important secret society that was established in 1833. It has, over the years, provided leaders in U.S. society, including presidents, judges of the Supreme Court, ambassadors, intelligence operators, business leaders, academic administrators, etc. It has persistently and relentlessly moulded the life and thought of the United States of America silently and profoundly. The Order has ceremonial rites such as lying in a coffin, its members are sworn to secrecy, and always deny membership of the society. It is headquartered in a windowless building known as “The Tomb”, where meetings of its members are held in secrecy. The “Tomb” was constructed in 1856. It is one of the four secret societies that exist in Yale University, the other three being Scroll and Key, Wolf’s Head and Elihu. However, it happens to be, by far, the most powerful and most controversial of these four.

In order to understand the purpose of the Order and its enormous influence, one has to delve into its origins, various interconnections at the very start, and the sources from where its drew its inspiration. In the words of author Kris Millegan, Yale is the place “[W]here three threads of American social history – espionage, drug smuggling and secret societies – intertwine into one.” One of the founders of the Order of Skull and Bones was William Huntington Russell. He was a cousin of Samuel Russell who, in 1823, founded Russell and Company for smuggling opium. Opium, acquired from Turkey, was smuggled by Russell and Company into China. Millegan notes that in 1830 Russell and Company merged with a Boston syndicate known as Perkins, becoming the primary opium smuggler of the U.S. Russell partners included Warren Delano Jr., the grandfather of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Cleve Green who funded Princeton, Abiel Low who financed construction of Columbia, and others. Important partners, who influenced life in the U.S. included Joseph Coolidge, whose son organized the United Fruit Company whose role in South American politics has always been crucial, and whose grandson Archibald C. Coolidge was one of the founders of the Council on Foreign Relations.

William Huntington went to Germany and spent a year studying there (1831-1832). At the time the German society was fermenting with new ideas and a new educational system, based on what was called the “scientific” method, was being developed. It was Johan Wolfgang Fitche who, in an address to the German nation, had declared that children would be taken over by the state and the state would determine what the children should think and how should they think. Fitche was a Freemason, and most likely Illuminati – he had support of the famous Illuminati Johan Wolfgang Goethe. Fitche was succeeded by the famous Hegel, who remained a professor at Berlin University until his death in 1831. It was Hegel who bequeathed the dialectical idea to the world. In the words of Kris Millegan: “To Hegel, our world is a world of reason. The state is Absolute Reason and the citizen can only become free by worship and obedience to the state. Hegel called the state the ‘march of God in the world’ and the ‘final end’. This final end, Hegel said, ‘has supreme right against the individual, whose supreme duty is to be a member of a state.” William Huntington Russell imbibed these ideas and was destined to import Hegelianism into American society. 

Upon returning to Yale in 1832 William Huntington Russell formed a secret society with Alphonso Taft. The secret society was initially named Scull and Bones. Subsequently the title was revised to Skull and Bones (abbreviated as S&B). Sometimes it is called the Brotherhood of Death. It is known as the Order by its members. Its insignia is the same as that on the flag of a pirate’s ship, with the number 322 printed beneath. The year of founding of this secret society is 1833, the year from which hails the first batch of this secret society. Russell went on to become a general and also became a legislator in Connecticut.  Alphonso Taft became Attorney General of the U.S., and subsequently became Minister of War. Taft also was the U.S. ambassador to Austria as well as Russia.  His son William Taft, was also a member Skull and Bones and became the Chief Justice as well as President of the United States, the only man in history to occupy these two positions.  This indicates the enormous power and influence of this secret society formed by Alphonso Taft and William H. Russell at Yale even in its early phase. 

Every year, since 1833, 15 students are selected and offered membership (they are “tapped” as the phrase goes). Membership was all male and white until 1992 when women were admitted, followed by colored members as well as LGBT community members. To date, in over 190 years of existence, the total number of members of S&B is close to 3,000. At any given time, the number of members alive is estimated to be between 500 and 600. The establishment of this society was not something done in isolation in an American institution. At one point Yale students broke into the headquarters of this society and recovered secret documents. One of the documents states: “Bones is a chapter of a corps in a German University . . . General Russell, its founder, was in Germany before his Senior Year and formed a warm friendship with a leading member of a German society. He brought back with him in college, authority to found a chapter here.” While this fascinating document reveals Skull and Bones as a chapter of a German secret society, it still does not reveal the name of the individual with whom Russell formed a friendship, nor does it identify the name of the German society. It even does not specify the name of the university where the parent society of Skull and Bones existed. Since Russell had gone to Berlin University, it is likely that the parent secret society existed in that university. Skull and Bones is chapter 322 of some German secret society. In fact, a list of S&B members supplied anonymously to Antony Sutton shows that in the S&B batch of 1833 the name at number 11 is not mentioned – instead two blank lines appear indicating that this could be the name of the anonymous German connection. Eustace Mullins has remarked that Skull and Bones is a branch of German Illuminati.

The Order of Skull and Bones has worked for promoting a Hegelian set up in the United States, where the state is supreme and individual liberties and rights are subservient to the demands of the state. Further the Hegelian dialectic, thesis versus anti-thesis, generates activity through clash of opposites and their resolution, followed by the generation of new opposites and so on. Members of S&B manage the conflict by being on both sides. John Kerry of the Democratic Party contested presidential elections against the Republican George Bush, when in fact both belonged to S&B! The Order has focused on education with particular fervor as a means of “dumbing down” the American mind. In this regard Kris Millegan writes: “Daniel Coit Gilman (1852) along with two other ‘Bonesmen’, formed a troika which still influences American life today. Soon after their initiation in Skull and Bones, Daniel Gilman, Timothy Dwight (1849) and Andrew Dickinson White (1853) went to study philosophy in Europe at the University of Berlin. Gilman returned from Europe and incorporated Skull and Bones as the Russell Trust in 1856 with himself as Treasurer and William H. Russell as President.  He spent the next 14 years in New Haven consolidating the order’s power.”

The focus of the order on education, particularly higher education, can be noticed from the following facts about this troika. Daniel Coit Gilman became the first President of the University of California. He also became the founder President of John Hopkins. Timothy Dwight became President of Yale in 1886, whereas Andrew D. White became the first President of Cornell University. Yale, John Hopkins, Cornell, and University of California are first rate institutions and it is highly significant that these were headed in their initial phases by three members of the Order of Skull and Bones who had gone to Berlin University for studying philosophy. It is likely that many subsequent presidents of these institutions have also been members of the Order of S&B.  In fact, Yale is almost always headed by a Bonesman. 

In addition to heading academic institutions this troika founded and/or headed other highly important organizations that have had, and continue to have, a profound influence on American society. Gilman was the first president of the Carnegie Institution and founded the Peabody, Slater, and Russell Sage Foundations. White became the first president of the American Historical Association, an organization established for the supremely important purpose of writing sanitized history and incorporating this sanitized history in the syllabi of the history courses throughout the United States. This troika also founded the American Economic Association, American Psychological Association and the American Chemical Society. Millegan states: “Through their influences on John Dewey and Horace Mann, this trio continues to have enormous impact on American education today.” Thus control of higher education has enabled them to control education of the United States at all levels. The number 322 in the emblem of the Order is thought by some to represent 322 B.C. when Greek orator Demosthenes died. This year marked the transition of Athens from a democracy to a plutocracy and is thought to represent the belief of S&B members that the U.S. should also become a plutocracy.

From the list of members provided to Sutton an interesting picture emerges. Initially the most important S&B members belonged to certain family lines. Initially the so-called Old Line families that had settled in Massachusetts in the first half of 17th century and had acquired wealth dominated the Order of S&B. These were the Gilman, the Taft, the Whitney, the Lord, the Stimson, the Perkins, the Bundy and the Phleps families. All these families settled in Massachusetts between 1630-1638, except for the Taft family which came in 1679. To these Old Line families were added families which came later and had acquired wealth in the 19th century. These included the Rockefeller, the Payne, the Harriman, the Davison, the Pillsbury, the Sloane and the Weyerhaueser families. Afterwards came families such as the Bush family which joined S&B during the 20th century.

Antony Sutton writes in his groundbreaking book on the Order: “The Order has either set up or penetrated just about every significant research, policy, and opinion making organization in the United States, in addition to the Church, business, law, government and politics. Not all at the same time, but persistently and consistently enough to dominate the direction of American society. The evolution of American society is not, and has not been for a century a voluntary development reflecting individual opinions, ideas and decisions at grass roots. On the contrary the road direction has been created artificially and stimulated by the Order. Not all organizations know they have been penetrated or used for another purpose.”

Not only have members of the Order the very first heads of several key higher education institutions as mentioned, they have also been key players in various Foundations whose wealth is used for the purposes pursued by the Order. Some Foundations set up and/or headed by members of the Order have already been mentioned. In addition, the Ford Foundation was headed by S&B member McGeorge Bundy from 1966-1979 even though the Ford family had views opposed to the secret societies. The American Society for Settlement of International Disputes was set in 1910 by Theodore Marburg who was its President. But the first Chairman of this society was William Howard Taft of S&B. This society was the precursor of the League to Enforce Peace, which evolved into the League of Nations idea and eventually became the United Nations. The brain behind UNESCO was another S&B member named Archiblad McLeash. These organizations reveal how the influence of the Order has acquired a global dimension, touching each and every nation on the planet!  In the U.S., the Institute of Policy Studies evolved, in 1963, out of the 1960 Peace Research Institute established by an S&B member named James Jeremiah Wadsworth.

Members of the Order acquired ownership of highly important media organizations from the very start. Henry Luce of S&B owned the Time Life magazines and their allied publications. John Chipman Farrar (S&B 1918) owned the Farrar Strauss publishing enterprise. Alfred Cowles (S&B 1913) became President of Cowles Communications which owned the Des Moines Register and Minneapolis Starr. Similarly the Atlantic Monthly was owned by an S&B member, etc. The first Director of the Nieman Fund, which awards the prestigious Nieman Fellowship in journalism at Harvard, was an S&B member named Archibakld McLeash. Several hundred Nieman Fellowships have been awarded to date.

Members of the Order of Skull and Bones are found on both sides of a conflict. They supported Hitler as well as Stalin! S&B member Averell Harrimann spent a good deal of time by Stalin’s side during WWII. According to Kris Millegan: “Funding and political maneuvering on the part of ‘Bonesmen’ and their allies helped the Bolsheviks prevail in Russia. In defiance of federal laws, the cabal financed industries, established banks, and developed oil and mineral deposits in the fledgling U.S.S.R.”   Webster Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin write: “Following his services to Germany’s Nazi Party, Averell Harrimann spent several years mediating between the British, American and Soviet governments in the war to stop the Nazis. He was ambassador to Moscow from 1943-1946. President Harry Truman, whom Harrimann and his friends held in amused contempt, appointed Harrimann U.S. ambassador to Britain in 1946.” Millegan writes that according to some Harrimann also “oversaw the transfer of nuclear secrets, plutonium and dollar prining plates to the U.S.S.R.”

From the list of members supplied secretly and confidentially to Antony Sutton and interesting picture emerges. Sutton had lists that covered approximately the first 150 years of the existence of the Order. He found that 77% i.e. more than three quarters of the members were concentrated in five areas. These areas are Law (18%), Education (16%), Business (16%), Finance (15%) and Industry (12%). As Sutton observes, these five areas are “the key fields for the control of society.” Although Government and politics account for only 3% of the members this is misleading because, on account of the “revolving door” phenomenon, people in these five fields can temporarily occupy important governmental positions. Sutton further notes; “Notably the areas of society least represented are those with the least ability to influence the structural direction of society.” Thus Sutton could find only five engineers in the list of members in 150 years! Further “Art, architecture and music are underrepresented. We can identify only 16 members in these three occupations in 150 years. Again these occupations are not influential in determining the structure of society.  Farmers are under represented, only 16 in 150 years, but we suspect that some took up farming to get away from the Order.”

George H.W. Bush spent his early childhood with his mother on Jupiter Island in Florida, but this is generally not mentioned. The reason for this has to do with the fact that Jupiter Island had been made “a staging ground for the 1940s takeover of the U.S. national security apparatus” by Averell Harrimann. On account of this the island had become “possibly the most secretive place in America”. It was owned by Permelia Pryor Reed, daughter of Samuel Pryor, chairman executive committee of Remington Arms, and a partner of S&B dominated Brown Brother Harrimann, and her husband, Yale graduate Joseph V. Reed. They bought the entire island, which is about half a mile wide and nine miles long, in 1931. The couple sold the land only to people that would fit in with them. 

When George H.W. Bush became President he used to visit Jupiter Island frequently. Webster Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin write: “But for several decades before Bush was President, Jupiter Island had an ordinance requiring fingerprinting of all housekeepers, gardeners and other non-residents working on the island. The Jupiter Island police department says that there are sensors in the two main roads that can track every automobile on the island. If a car tops in a street, the police will be there within one or two minutes. Surveillance is a duty of all employees of the town of Jupiter Island. News reporters are to be prevented from visiting the island.”

Jupiter Island resident Robert A Lovett, a partner of Prescott Bush (S&B 1917) was Assistant Secretary of War from 1941-1945. It was Lovett who was the main American advocate of terror-bombing of civilians. It was Lovett who organized the Strategic Bombing Survey in collaboration with the Tavistock Institute in order to terrorize the civilian population of Germany by such actions as fire-bombing of Dresden. He also advised Lyndon Johnson to carry out such terror-bombing of Vietnam. C. Douglas Dillon, a neighbor of George Bush on Jupiter Island, became undersecretary of State after the death of John Foster Dulles in 1958. From 1953-1957 Dillon had been ambassador to France and had coordinated the U.S. backing of the French imperialism in Vietnam. The results of this policy became catastrophic for France and eventually the U.S. and Vietnam and adjoining regions leading to tens of millions of deaths. Jock Whitney, ambassador to Britain, was a  neighbor of Prescott Bush on Jupiter Island and set up a propaganda organization for the CIA and the British intelligence.

S& B member Averell Harrimann betrayed John F. Kennedy’s attempts to de-escalate the Vietnam war.  James Douglas writes about John Kenneth Galbraith’s proposal to JFK to use the Indian government to communicate with the Communist bloc in the matter. “In response to the President’s order to wire such instructions to Galbraith, Harrimann ‘struck the language of de-escalation from the message with a heavy pencil line’ as scholar Gareth Porter discovered in examining Harrimann’s papers. Harriman dictated instructions to his colleague Edward Rice for as telegram to Galbraith that instead ‘changed the mutual de-escalation approach into a threat of the U.S. escalation of war if the North Vietnamese refused to accept U.S. terms’ thereby subverting Kennedy’s purpose. When Rice tried to reintroduce Kennedy’s peaceful initiative into the telegram Harrimann intervened. He again crossed out the de-escalation proposal, the ‘simply killed the telegram altogether.’ As a result of Harrimann’s obstruction, Galbraith never did receive JFK’s mutual de-escalation proposal to North Vietnam.”

John Kennedy was betrayed during the Bay of Pigs invasion by three leading lights of the CIA: Director Allen Dulles and two Deputy Directors Richard Bissell and Gen. Charles Cabell. Bissell had studied at Yale and had refused an offer to become a member of S&B. However, his brother was an S&B member. All three were to play a role in the JFK assassination as JFK had sacked all three of them for having betrayed him. The real disaster during Bay of Pigs occurred when McGeorge Bundy called off the attack on the surviving T33s of Castro’s air force in violation of explicit orders of JFK. Bundy was a member of Order of S&B. His brother William Bundy was also a member of the Order of S&B Thus S&B members played a crucial role in subverting JFK’s administration. Antony Sutton et al writes about the Bundy brothers: “The two brothers from their positions in the CIA, the Department of Defense and the State Department and as special assistants to President Kennedy and Johnson exercised significant impact over the flow of information and intelligence during the Vietnam war.” William Bundy became the editor of Foreign Affairs, the quarterly journal of the Council on Foreign Relations while McGeorge Bundy became head of the Ford Foundation.

When Gen. Eisenhower instructed that U2 flights over U.S.S.R. be stopped in view of an impending summit with Khrushchev, it was Bissell who betrayed the orders and managed the U2 flight, flown by Gary Powers, which came down over U.S.S.R. leading to a cancellation of the summit. Donald Gibson wrote: “Richard Bissell was the man who developed and almost certainly played a role in the Gates-Powers mess.” Gates was then secretary of defense. Thus S&B members sabotaged the policy of reduction of tensions with the Soviet Union and at the same time sabotaged JFK’s policy of disengaging from Vietnam, eventually playing a role in his assassination. James Jesus Angleton, the head of the CIA’s counter-intelligence wing, played a key role in the JFK assassination. He was a member of the Order of S&B. Members of the Order were responsible for horrendous bombing of civilians during WWII as well as the Vietnam and subsequently Iraq wars under S&B presidents the Bushes, killing tens of millions of innocent civilians.

The Order of S&B stands for serious and managed or forced population reduction as well as the elimination of those who are poor or weak, or have physical or mental handicaps. George H.W. Bush stated: “The per capita income gap between the developed and developing countries is increasing, in large part the result of higher birth rate in poorer countries … Famine in India, unwanted babies in the United States, poverty that seemed to form an unbreakable chain for millions of people – how should we tackle these problems … It is quite clear that one of the major challenges of the 1970s … will be the curb of the world’s fertility.” This thinking is quite similar to that of Adolf Hitler, with whom S&B members cooperated. Hitler had stated: “Those who are physically and mentally unhealthy must not perpetuate their suffering in the body of their children… The prevention of the faculty and opportunity to procreate on the part of physically degenerate and mentally sick over a period of 600 years would … free humanity from an immeasurable misfortune.” The Order of S&B subscribes to this philosophy.

Averell Harriman’s mother had funded the race-science movement in the U.S. in 1910 because she shared with the Farish family an interest in raising thorough breds among horses, extending the same to humans. Dr. Ernst Rudin of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Genealogy and Demography was brought to New York for the 1932 New York Eugenics Conference arranged by the Harrimanns, where he was unanimously elected president of the International Federation of Eugenics Societies. In 1928 Dr. Rudin had addressed the Federation’s meeting in Munich speaking on “Mental Aberration and Race Hygiene.” According to Webster Tarpley and Anton Chaitkin components of the world eugenics movement included: “sterilization of mental patients (‘mental hygiene societies’); execution of insane criminals and terminally ill (‘euthanasia societies’); and eugenical race purification by prevention of births to parents from ‘inferior’ blood stocks (‘birth control societies’). Before Auschwitz death camps became a household word, these British-American-European groups called openly for the elimination of ‘unfit’ by means including force and violence.” This movement was backed by the S&B members, particularly the Harrimann family. The Rockefellers also funded this movement significantly.

In summary the Order of Skull and Bones has produced three U.S. presidents, two chief justices, numerous Senators, Congressmen, ambassadors, and cabinet members. They have influenced the U.S. society in a profound way through control of education, law, business, finance and industry. Chief Justice and Bonesman M.R. Waite simply declared in 1886, without any debate, that corporations have the rights of a person. The Order has had a global impact through setting up of UN and international judicial organizations. The Order has promoted war and genocide as a part of its Malthsuian philosophy and has worked for making the state more powerful and the individual rights subservient to the demands of the state. The state does not exist to serve the individual, it is the other way round. The Oredr is, to se Sutton’s phrase, America’s Secret Esyablishment.

Antony C. Sutton, who had exposed the Order of Skull and Bones through his books and ongoing work died mysteriously in 2002. Kris Millegan wrote: “Antony Sutton was a giant among men. His integrity cost him dearly, his vocation, his income, his family … maybe even his life. Tony had collapsed to his kitchen floor early one morning. All the coroner would tell me was ‘natural causes’. I asked his partner for many years what happened; she said she didn’t know, she was sleeping. The only thing strange was some folks had moved into the apartment upstairs a few weeks before and then moved right out after Tony’s passing.” The Order may have had a hand in his death. 

Syed Mujahid Kamran was the Vice Chancellor of Punjab University, Lahore. He was a Fullbright Fellow at University of Georgia, USA, during 1988-89 and professor of physics at King Saud University, Riyadh, from 2001 to 2004.


Pakistani rupee exchange rate to US Dollar, Euro, Pound, Dirham, and Riyal - 27 Feb 2024

Pakistani currency remains largely stable against US dollar in the open market on February 27, 2024 (Tuesday).

US Dollar rate in Pakistan

In the open market, the US dollar was being quoted at 279.4 for buying and 282.3 for selling.

Euro currently stands at 303 for buying and 306 for selling while British Pound rate stands at 351.5 for buying, and 355 for selling.

UAE Dirham AED hovers at 76 whereas the Saudi Riyal saw slight increase, with new rates at 76.7.

Today’s currency exchange rates in Pakistan - 27 Feb 2024

Source: Forex Association of Pakistan. (last update 09:00 AM)
Currency Symbol Buying Selling
US Dollar USD 279.4 282.3
Euro EUR 303 306
UK Pound Sterling GBP 351.5 355
U.A.E Dirham AED 76 76.7
Saudi Riyal SAR 74.2 75
Australian Dollar AUD 181 183
Bahrain Dinar BHD 742.91 750.91
Canadian Dollar CAD 207 209
China Yuan CNY 38.82 39.22
Danish Krone DKK 40.56 40.96
Hong Kong Dollar HKD 35.7 36.05
Indian Rupee INR 3.37 3.48
Japanese Yen JPY 2.10 2.18
Kuwaiti Dinar KWD 905.46 914.46
Malaysian Ringgit MYR 58.49 59.09
New Zealand Dollar NZD 173.05 175.05
Norwegians Krone NOK 26.36
Omani Riyal OMR 725.54 733.54
Qatari Riyal QAR 76.74 77.44
Singapore Dollar SGD 207 209
Swedish Korona SEK 27.04 27.34
Swiss Franc CHF 317 319.5
Thai Bhat THB 7.76 7.91


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