Kashmir is termed as the ‘jugular vein’ of Pakistan as all major rivers originate from there. The agricultural prosperity and power generation of the country is dependent on the waters of these rivers. It is an unfinished agenda of partition. By 15 August 1947, all the 600 princely states except Junagarh, Hyderabad, and the state of Jammu &Kashmir had acceded to either Pakistan or India on the principle underlying the partition of British India, that Muslim majority states to join Pakistan and non-Muslim majority states to join India. According to book of S.M. Bruke, Pakistan’s Foreign Policy (p 17-27) the state of Jammu&Kashmir, popularly known as Kashmir had overall 78% Muslims, but in the valley of Kashmir Muslims were 93%. The ruler was Maharaja Hari Singh a Hindu. He initially wanted Kashmir to become independent but it was not possible as per partition rules. India sent its troops to Kashmir and occupied in October 47. In accordance with partition rules, the princely state of Jammu & Kashmir should have been part of Pakistan. The first war between India and Pakistan over Kashmir was fought in 1947/48. India approached the United Nations asking to intervene. The United Nations recommended holding a plebiscite to settle the question of whether the state would join India or Pakistan which have not yet taken place. Indian occupied Kashmir (IOK) was given special status within the Indian constitution, which guaranteed that it would have independence over everything except communications, foreign affairs, and defense. This special status (article 370 of the Indian constitution) was revoked by the Indian government on 5 August 2019.A meeting of the members of the Security Council was held in mid-August to discuss the Kashmir issue at the request of Pakistan. After the close door meeting, China's Ambassador Jun Zhang told reporters that Council members feel that India and Pakistan should both stop from any unilateral action over Kashmir. The fact that the Kashmir issue was discussed in the highest diplomatic forum of the world is testimony to Pakistan’s point of view that this is an international dispute. Since then India has imposed locked down in Kashmir and continuously committing atrocities on the residents. Pakistan's government is highlighting these aspects at every forum. Pakistani citizens should also expose Indians by whatever means available about the illegal occupation of Kashmir and mayhems being committed to the inhabitants. In short, Kashmir is a major dispute which has yet to be resolved between India and Pakistan. It is considered the main hindrance for the normalization of relations. Border skirmishes take place on the Line of Control(LOC) frequently.
In early January 1965, a dispute of Rann of Kutch emerged. According to Abdul Sattarbook, Pakistan’s Foreign Policy (p102-105), India contested 3,500 miles area north of 24 degrees parallel. Fighting flared up in April. British government persuaded both sides to agree to a ceasefire which took place on 1 May. later on, the issue was resolved by a Tribunal. Keeping this in view, Pakistan Navy (PN) was ready for any more eventuality. In the next few months, PN units remained extra alert and went to sea frequently. Had embarked fuel, ammunition, and stores for war. In the meantime, operation Gibraltar was executed by the Army in early August 1965 calling for incursions by Kashmiri volunteers into IOK. It was assumed that a large scale Indian offensive is not likely. But India launched an offensive on the international border on 6 Sep with the objective to capture Lahore. Hence the all-out war commenced India as the aggressor. According to Jane’s Fighting Ships of 1965-66, PN had a cruiser, a submarine, and 7 destroyers(DDs)/ frigates (FFs), whereas India had an Aircraft carrier, two cruisers, and 19 DDs/ FFs. Indian Navy (IN) had considerable numerical superiority. The correct ratio between the two navies cannot be determined because PN did not have an Aircraft Carrier, it may be assessed as 1:5. According to the book Story of the Pakistan Navy (p216-20), the role assigned to PN was Sea word defense of Pakistan, keep sea lines of communication open, interdiction of shipping, thwart amphibious landing and assist the army in the riverine operations in former East Pakistan. India had deployed an Aircraft carrier,2 cruisers, and 14 DDs/ FFs on the East coast and 5 DDs/ FFs on their West coast. PN Submarine Ghazi was deployed off the Bombay area to sink heavy units of in that is Aircraft Carrier Vikrant and two heavy cruisers, Delhi and Mysore. She sailed on 2 Sep and was in her patrol area off Bombay on 5 Sep. Vikrant and Delhi were refitting in Bombay. Mysore was operational in Cochin harbor. It was assessed that Mysore will move north towards Bombay but it never left Cochin area.PN received a message about the starting of hostilities by India at 0630 on 6 Sep. PN units were preparing to leave harbor at 0800 for a weekly exercise program and left harbor before 0800 and moved towards their assigned petrol stations. Naval control of the shipping organization was activated to effectively control merchant ships. An embargo was declared on all merchant ships carrying warlike stores to India. The river routes used by Indian steamers transiting through former E Pak were sealed. Orders were issued to seize all such vessels and their cargo. All these actions were taken swiftly in order to inflict severe losses to the enemy in terms of valuable cargo, ships, and river craft. In the afternoon of 7 Sep while the Taskforce comprising cruiser Babur and six destroyers and frigates was on patrol, orders were issued to carry out a bombardment of Dwarkafrom a distance as close as of 5.5 nautical miles. The main objective was to destroy radar station, to draw heavy IN units out of Bombay for Ghazi to attack, lower the morale of Indians, and to divert Indian air effort away from the northern area close to Karachi. The city of Dwarka was completely blacked out. The bombardment was started about 30 minutes past midnight and completed in five minutes. Each ship fired 50 rounds. The Task Group safely arrived at its patrol station at 0630 on 8 Sep after successfully completing the mission. IN ships did not come out even after bombardment therefore, Ghazi was assigned patrol off the Indian Kutch coast. On 22 Sep she managed to get an IN frigate as its target. She carried out an attack with four torpedoes at 7:11 pm. The commanding officer, commander K R Niazi (retired as CNS), and second in command Lt Commander Ahmad Tasnim (retired as Vice Admiral) got gallantry awards Sitara e Jurrat (SJ). Hardly any movement of IN unit was observed in the North Arabian Sea and in the Bay of Bengal during the entire 16 days war. The PN had achieved Sea Control (establishment of naval superiority in areas where operations were intended to be conducted) of the North Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal in the classic sense. However, the government accepted the ceasefire on 22 September. The PN task force remained at sea till 27 Sep to meet any contingency. The PN dominated the IN which was about 5 times more in strength by her superior training, planning, foresight, and courageous execution of operations.
Cdre (r) Dr Anjum Sarfraz is former Director National Center for Maritime Policy Research and Senior Research Fellow at Strategic Vision Institute Islamabad.
Pakistani rupee remains largely stable against USD and other currencies in the open market on March 2, 2024 (Saturday).
In the open market, the US dollar was being quoted at 279.4 for buying and 282.3 for selling.
Euro currently stands at 302.5 for buying and 305.5 for selling while British Pound rate stands at 354 for buying, and 359 for selling.
UAE Dirham AED hovers at 76.3 whereas the Saudi Riyal saw slight increase, with new rates at 74.5.
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