Chandrayaan 3 – India's triumphant lunar mission

09:44 PM | 4 Sep, 2023
Source: IRSO

Asmad Bin Ali

On August 30, India achieved a significant milestone as they successfully landed their spacecraft on the southern region of the moon. At precisely 6:04 pm (1234GMT), Chandrayaan 3 made a successful touchdown. The term "Chandrayaan," derived from Sanskrit, translates to "mooncraft." This mission held immense importance for India, as evidenced by the elated Prime Minister's live podcast appearance. During this broadcast, he sported a broad smile while waving the Indian flag, remarking, "India's triumphant lunar mission is not solely our own achievement; this success belongs to all of humanity. 

"The journey of Chandrayaan 3 to the moon was not without its challenges. Unlike the Apollo missions, which were propelled by advanced technology, Chandrayaan 3 faced delays due to power and technological limitations. As a result, the probe had to make several orbits around the Earth to gather the necessary speed for its month-long voyage. 

One of the mission's remarkable components is the lander Vikram, which has been capturing and transmitting images of Earth's surface since August 5 after entering the lunar orbit. Vikram is equipped with a solar-powered rover designed to explore the moon's surface and transmit invaluable data back to Earth within its two-week operational window. 

India accomplished this ambitious mission at a relatively low cost of $74.6 million. This feat was made possible by leveraging existing technology and the expertise of their skilled engineers, who remained dedicated without imposing a significant burden on the budget. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), responsible for this achievement, had experienced setbacks due to the failure of Chandrayaan 2 in 2019. The mission control lost contact with Chandrayaan 2 just moments before its intended landing, leading to a setback that further underscored the significance of Chandrayaan 3's success. 

To date, only Russia, the United States, and China have achieved controlled lunar landings. Russia's recent attempt in August held the potential to make history by landing a spacecraft on the moon's southern side. However, Luna 25 encountered an unforeseen incident and crashed on Saturday as it was poised for landing, marking a poignant reminder of the complexities and challenges of space exploration.

The author is a student of Grade 9 at Aitchison College, Lahore.


Today's currency exchange rates in Pakistan - Dollar, Euro, Pound, Riyal rates on Sept 23, 2023

KARACHI - Following are the foreign currency exchange rates for US Dollar, Saudi Riyal, UK Pound Sterling, U.A.E. Dirham, European Euro, and other foreign currencies in Pakistan open market on September 23, 2023 (Saturday).

Source: Forex Association of Pakistan. (last update 09:00 AM)

Currency Symbol Buying Selling
US Dollar ‎USD 292 295.15
Euro EUR 317 320
UK Pound Sterling GBP 372.5 376
U.A.E Dirham AED 81.5 82.3
Saudi Riyal SAR 78.55 79.3
Australian Dollar AUD 198 200
Bahrain Dinar BHD 781.13 789.13
Canadian Dollar CAD 220 222.2
China Yuan CNY 40.22 40.62
Danish Krone DKK 42.35 42.75
Hong Kong Dollar HKD 37.93 38.28
Indian Rupee INR 3.57 3.68
Japanese Yen JPY 1.92 1.99
Kuwaiti Dinar KWD 951.03 960.03
Malaysian Ringgit MYR 62.62 63.22
New Zealand Dollar NZD 174.23 176.23
Norwegians Krone NOK 27.87 28.17
Omani Riyal OMR 762.72 770.72
Qatari Riyal ‎QAR 80.69 81.39
Singapore Dollar SGD 217 219
Swedish Korona SEK 26.62 26.92
Swiss Franc CHF 325.12 327.62
Thai Bhat THB 8.31 8.46

Gold Rate in Pakistan Today – September 23, 2023

Today Gold Rate in Pakistan

KARACHI – The price of a single tola of 24-karat gold in Pakistan is Rs 215,800 on Saturday. The price of 10 grams of 24k gold was recorded at Rs185,020.

Likewise, 10 grams of 22k gold were being traded for Rs170,068 while a single tola of 22-karat gold was being sold at Rs198,365.

Note: The gold rate in Pakistan is fluctuating according to the international market so the price is never been fixed. The below rates are provided by local gold markets and Sarafa Markets of different cities.

Today Gold Price in Pakistan - 23 September 2023

City Gold Silver
Lahore PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Karachi PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Islamabad PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Peshawar PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Quetta PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Sialkot PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Attock PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Gujranwala PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Jehlum PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Multan PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Bahawalpur PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Gujrat PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Nawabshah PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Chakwal PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Hyderabad PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Nowshehra PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Sargodha PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Faisalabad PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565
Mirpur PKR 215,800 PKR 2,565


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