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Chandrayaan 3 – India's triumphant lunar mission

09:44 PM | 4 Sep, 2023
Chandrayaan-3
Source: IRSO

Asmad Bin Ali

On August 30, India achieved a significant milestone as they successfully landed their spacecraft on the southern region of the moon. At precisely 6:04 pm (1234GMT), Chandrayaan 3 made a successful touchdown. The term "Chandrayaan," derived from Sanskrit, translates to "mooncraft." This mission held immense importance for India, as evidenced by the elated Prime Minister's live podcast appearance. During this broadcast, he sported a broad smile while waving the Indian flag, remarking, "India's triumphant lunar mission is not solely our own achievement; this success belongs to all of humanity. 

"The journey of Chandrayaan 3 to the moon was not without its challenges. Unlike the Apollo missions, which were propelled by advanced technology, Chandrayaan 3 faced delays due to power and technological limitations. As a result, the probe had to make several orbits around the Earth to gather the necessary speed for its month-long voyage. 

One of the mission's remarkable components is the lander Vikram, which has been capturing and transmitting images of Earth's surface since August 5 after entering the lunar orbit. Vikram is equipped with a solar-powered rover designed to explore the moon's surface and transmit invaluable data back to Earth within its two-week operational window. 

India accomplished this ambitious mission at a relatively low cost of $74.6 million. This feat was made possible by leveraging existing technology and the expertise of their skilled engineers, who remained dedicated without imposing a significant burden on the budget. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), responsible for this achievement, had experienced setbacks due to the failure of Chandrayaan 2 in 2019. The mission control lost contact with Chandrayaan 2 just moments before its intended landing, leading to a setback that further underscored the significance of Chandrayaan 3's success. 

To date, only Russia, the United States, and China have achieved controlled lunar landings. Russia's recent attempt in August held the potential to make history by landing a spacecraft on the moon's southern side. However, Luna 25 encountered an unforeseen incident and crashed on Saturday as it was poised for landing, marking a poignant reminder of the complexities and challenges of space exploration.

The author is a student of Grade 9 at Aitchison College, Lahore.

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Rupee exchange rate to US Dollar, Euro, Pound, Dirham, and Riyal - 25 Feb 2024 forex rates

Pakistani rupee remains stable against US dollar in the open market on February 25, 2024 (Sunday).

US Dollar rate in Pakistan

In the open market, the US dollar was being quoted at 279.5 for buying and 282.55 for selling.

Euro currently stands at 302 for buying and 305 for selling while British Pound rate stands at 352.5 for buying, and 356 for selling.

UAE Dirham AED hovers at 76.1 whereas the Saudi Riyal saw slight increase, with new rates at 74.35.

Today’s currency exchange rates in Pakistan - 25 Feb 2024

Source: Forex Association of Pakistan. (last update 09:00 AM)
Currency Symbol Buying Selling
US Dollar USD 279.5 282.55
Euro EUR 302 305
UK Pound Sterling GBP 352.5 356
U.A.E Dirham AED 76.1 76.8
Saudi Riyal SAR 74.35 75.1
Australian Dollar AUD 181 183
Bahrain Dinar BHD 743.88 751.88
Canadian Dollar CAD 207 209
China Yuan CNY 38.89 39.29
Danish Krone DKK 40.38 40.78
Hong Kong Dollar HKD 35.76 36.11
Indian Rupee INR 3.37 3.48
Japanese Yen JPY 2.10 2.18
Kuwaiti Dinar KWD 908.79 917.79
Malaysian Ringgit MYR 58.6 59.2
New Zealand Dollar NZD 171.68 173.68
Norwegians Krone NOK 26.43 26.73
Omani Riyal OMR 726.53 734.53
Qatari Riyal QAR 76.76 77.46
Singapore Dollar SGD 207 209
Swedish Korona SEK 26.53 26.83
Swiss Franc CHF 317.87 320.37
Thai Bhat THB 7.79 7.94

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