Institutionalizing Evapotranspiration: A Game-Changer for Pakistan's Irrigated Agriculture

12:34 PM | 28 Apr, 2023
Institutionalizing Evapotranspiration: A Game-Changer for Pakistan's Irrigated Agriculture

Pakistan, a predominantly agricultural country, relies heavily on irrigation systems for its economic growth. However, the country has been facing severe water scarcity issues in recent years, and the situation is only expected to worsen in the future.

In this context, institutionalizing evapotranspiration (ET) can be a game-changer in Pakistan's water management and irrigation practices. Institutionalizing ET involves incorporating and strengthening ET monitoring stations coupled with satellite remote sensing data, optimum irrigation scheduling plans, and irrigation performance assessment into the national water policy and provincial water acts.

One of the main advantages of institutionalizing ET is that it can help improve irrigation efficiency and reduce water losses. Currently, Pakistan's irrigation system is not well-managed, and there is a lack of reliable data on water consumption and crop water requirements. As a result, farmers misuse the available water resources, which not only wastes water but also increases the risk of soil salinity and waterlogging. By incorporating ET monitoring stations and irrigation scheduling, farmers can be provided with real-time data on crop water requirements.

This will help them optimize their irrigation practices and reduce water losses. Additionally, irrigation performance indicators can be established to assess the efficiency of the irrigation system and identify areas for improvement.

Remote sensing can also be used to monitor ET from a regional scale, providing policymakers with valuable information on water use and crop productivity. The Colorado State University's ET-based irrigation scheduling program is a successful example of how remote sensing can be used to optimize irrigation practices. By using satellite imagery to measure ET, the program has helped farmers reduce water use by up to 30% while maintaining crop yields.

Pakistan can learn from such successful examples and adopt similar practices to improve its water management and irrigation systems. However, institutionalizing ET requires significant investments in infrastructure and technology. This can be a challenge for a developing country like Pakistan, but the long-term benefits of water conservation and sustainable agriculture make it a worthy investment.

In addition to improving irrigation efficiency, institutionalizing ET can also have a positive impact on Pakistan's water management policies. The national water policy and provincial water acts can more focus on ET-based irrigation scheduling and performance indicators. This will help shift the focus from the current system, which is based on water distribution, to a more water-efficient system that prioritizes water conservation and crop productivity.

Moreover, institutionalizing ET can help Pakistan address its water scarcity issues by providing policymakers with accurate data on water use and availability. Pakistan is already facing severe water shortages, and the situation is only expected to worsen due to population growth, climate change, and increased demand from other sectors. By incorporating ET into its water management policies, Pakistan can better manage its limited water resources and ensure sustainable agriculture.

In conclusion, institutionalizing evapotranspiration is a key step for Pakistan's water management and irrigation practices. By strengthening ET monitoring stations, irrigation scheduling, and performance indicators in the national water policy and provincial water acts, Pakistan can improve irrigation efficiency, reduce water waste, and address its water scarcity issues. While the initial investments may be significant, the long-term benefits of sustainable agriculture and water conservation make it a worthy investment for Pakistan's future.


Pakistani rupee inches up against US dollar, Euro, Pound, Riyal and Dirham; Check latest rates here

Pakistani rupee witnessed upward trajectort against US dollar and other currencies amid positive economic cues.

Dollar Rate in Pakistan Today

On Wednesday, the US dollar moved down and was being quoted at 283.7 for buying and 286.75 for selling.

Euro remained stable at 309 for buying and 312 for selling. British Pound rate increased to 361 for buying, and 364 for selling.

UAE Dirham AED dropped to 77.6 whereas the Saudi Riyal rate stands at 76.

Today's currency exchange rates in Pakistan - 6 December 2023

Source: Forex Association of Pakistan. (last update 09:00 AM)

Currency Symbol Buying Selling
US Dollar USD 283.7  286.75 
Euro EUR 309  312 
UK Pound Sterling GBP 361  364 
U.A.E Dirham AED 77.6 78.3
Saudi Riyal SAR 76 76.8
Australian Dollar AUD 187.72 188.22
Bahrain Dinar BHD 758.58 766.58
Canadian Dollar CAD 209 211
China Yuan CNY 39.93 40.33
Danish Krone DKK 41.41 41.81
Hong Kong Dollar HKD 36.49 36.84
Indian Rupee INR 3.42 3.53
Japanese Yen JPY 1.49 1.56
Kuwaiti Dinar KWD 923.13 932.13
Malaysian Ringgit MYR 60.97 61.57
New Zealand Dollar NZD 175.89 177.89
Norwegians Krone NOK 26.68 26.98
Omani Riyal OMR 740.01 748.01
Qatari Riyal QAR 78.36 79.06
Singapore Dollar SGD 211 213
Swedish Korona SEK 27.45 27.75
Thai Bhat THB 8.09 8.24

Gold price sees major drop in Pakistan; Check today gold rates - 6 Dec 2023

KARACHI – Gold prices in the local market continue to decline in line with the international market.

Gold Rates in Pakistan Today - 6 December 2023

On Wednesday, the price of a single tola of 24-karat gold stands at Rs219,400 and 10 grams of 24k gold costs Rs188,100. 

Each tola for 24 karat is Rs216,700, 22 Karat is Rs198,640, and 21 karat rate per tola is Rs189,613 and 18k gold rate is Rs162,525.00 for single tola.

In the global market, the precious metal moved down, and hovers around $2023 per ounce after drop of around $10.

Today Gold Rate in Pakistan

City Gold Silver
Lahore PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Karachi PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Islamabad PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Peshawar PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Quetta PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Sialkot PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Attock PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Gujranwala PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Jehlum PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Multan PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Bahawalpur PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Gujrat PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Nawabshah PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Chakwal PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Hyderabad PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Nowshehra PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Sargodha PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Faisalabad PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625
Mirpur PKR 219,400 PKR 2,625


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